Following the highly anticipated summit, the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation issued the "Joint Statement of the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation on International Relations and Global Sustainable Development in the New Era."

The declaration, which was approximately (5000) words long, emphasized that "the friendship between the two states is unlimited." Common positions were comprehensively laid out in the lengthy paper.

While this common approach of the two countries crystallizes in an anti-US and anti-NATO context, also emphasizes that a "new era" in international relations has emerged. Both Russia and China agree that multipolar globalization could be strengthened by establishing a community of shared destiny.

There appears to be agreement that this common destiny building can also be accomplished through "global development."

 

China and Russia are working together to counter Western-centered alliances

Both Moscow and Beijing emphasize that the United States harms both Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. This joint statement also formalized Russia's and China's positions against security-based alliance organizations such as NATO and AUKUS.

The two countries urged NATO to halt its expansion, particularly in Eastern Europe, while also urging the North Atlantic alliance to abandon its Cold War-era ideological approaches. At its 2019 summit, NATO for the first time referred to China as a "strategic challenge."

The statement issued following NATO's last summit in 2021 focused on Russia's expansionism, while China was described as a systemic 'challenge.'

While the Sino-Russian partnership was mentioned in the same statement, the military cooperation between China and Russia was highlighted as a major source of concern. China and Russia have a partnership model.

The recent partnership model developed by China and Russia, as well as calls to restore the structure of the international system, demonstrate that these issues are now occurring at a "systemic level."

Meanwhile, new energy treaties between the two countries are on the table. One of them envisions Russia supplying China with 10 billion cubic meters of gas per year. In 2021, Russia exported 16.5 billion cubic meters of gas to China. In 2025, this figure is expected to rise to 38 billion cubic meters. In this case, Russia could be the leader in gas exports to China. The gas transaction is estimated to be worth around $117 billion.

Russia is fortifying ties with China, the world's largest energy consumer while decreasing its reliance on traditional European energy customers.

 

China and Russia gaining a closer relationship as a result of regional crises

Politically, the two countries are staunchly supportive of one another. While Moscow received Chinese support on the Ukraine issue, it agreed with China on the Taiwan issue. Moscow stated that it fully supports Beijing's stance on Taiwan and opposes Taiwan's independence in all ways.

It should be noted, however, that the Ukraine issue was not mentioned at all, even though the two countries made mutual commitments in the joint statement. Although China is sending a message through NATO's expansion, the phrase "Ukraine" is not included in the joint statement.

The declaration does, however, include Russia's position on Taiwan.

This highly anticipated summit between Xi and Putin resulted in an anti-NATO and anti-US'statement of stance.' This summit reaffirms the Chinese-Russian partnership's anti-Western orientation. Alternatively, it appears that China and Russia have agreed to oppose the US-led global order through a strategic partnership.

China and Russia's strategic partnership deepens in an anti-NATO context as it moves toward a "coordinated partnership" in an anti-Western context. The answer to the question of whether an asymmetrical situation in these relations may occur in favour of China is not yet clear. However, it is clear that Russia, which is under intense pressure from the West, requires this partnership.

Through intense competition with the West, China and Russia are closing ranks. This alignment also includes vehement opposition to the United States' global leadership. This situation point out that the start of a new era in international relations which the United States' role will no longer be exclusive or decisive.

 

Anti-NATO pact and the declaration of a new cold war

While this new situation is viewed as a pact that challenges the global network of the United States and its allies, it is also evaluated as the start of a new cold war. China's harsh criticism of NATO and statements in support of Russia highlight the global "power" it has attained in the new era.

The world is on the verge of being divided into competing domains. The portrayal of Russia and China as revisionist powers in national security documents released during the Trump administration is still remembered.

The recent Ukraine crisis was viewed by the US as an opportunity to sever Russia's ties with China. It sparked the problem. According to the calculations, China would be unable to provide clear support to Russia.

However, things may have not go as planned.

With the historic summit in Beijing, China both fully supported Russia and demonstrated the depth of relations by issuing an anti-NATO statement. While attempting to isolate Russia, the United States also contributed to the strengthening of ties with China.

On the other hand, this Chinese and Russian alliance also caused to in reconciliation on the Atlantic flank.

The new German government, which had been not agreed with US about both Russia and China for a long time, needed to send a clear message on behalf of the United States.

Nixon stated fifty years ago, "China must change" When he stated, "The world cannot be safe unless China changes" he meant that China should be included in the system.

At the time, significant progress was made with a strategy (detente) to which Kissinger made significant contributions.

But, today, given all of this, China and Russia are preparing to stand up to the United States and the West-centered "international order."

It is unknown whether "liberalism is outdated" as Putin stated in a statement, but becoming increasingly clear that the world is polarized over harsh rhetoric.

Dr.Hüseyin Korkmaz. The author is a researcher focusing on China and geopolitics in the Asia, primarily related to the US-China relations.

@drhkorkmaz